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Unit 3 Asia 课文分析 语法讲解 重点难点-学生频道-【 扬州家教网 - YZJJW.NET】
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Unit 3 Asia 课文分析 语法讲解 重点难点
发布者:本站编辑 发布时间:2009-8-31 阅读:5885次 【字体:

【课文分析】

    1. Unless you have a map, you will get lost easily.

    除非你有一张地图,否则很容易迷路。

    (1) unless 除非

    He’ll go there unless it rains.

    如果天不下雨,他将到那儿去。

    He is sure to come unless he has some urgent work to do at home.

    除非他家里有急事要办,不然他一定会来的。

    (2) get lost迷路

    I gave you a map so you wouldn’t get lost.

    我给你一张地图,这样你就不会迷路了。

    The little child got lost while his parents doing shopping.

    这个小孩在他的父母购物的时候迷路了。

    2. The emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties used to live here.

    明清的帝王以前都住在这儿。

    “主语+used to+动词原形+其它”这个句型结构表示过去的习惯,暗示现在已无此习惯。

    

    其否定形式是主语+didn’t use to+动原

    问句形式为:Did+主语+use to+…?

    反意疑问句:主语+used to+…,did+主语?

    和used to 相关的其它句型:

    get / be used to doing 习惯于做……

    be used for doing被用来

    I used to be afraid of the dark.

    我以前怕黑。

    Mary used to be short.

    玛丽以前很矮。

    You used to have long hair, didn’t you?

    你以前是长头发,不是吗?

    I used to live in Shanghai.

    我过去住在上海。

    3.You will be attracted by the beautiful design of the buildings, and the clothes and furniture that the emperors used in the past.

    (1) attract 吸引

    We were attracted by the display of lights.

    我们被灯展吸引了。

    The fire attracted significant coverage from the media.

    大火引起了传播媒介的重视。

    (2) in the past 在过去,表过去,句子要用过去时。

    English was spoken here in the past.

    这里从前说英语。

    In the past he has been a milkman and now he’s a farmer.

    从前他曾经是送牛奶工人,现在他是个农场主。

    4. It is the biggest square in the world and is always filled with tourists.

    它是世界上最大的广场,经常满是游客。

    be filled with用……充满

    One was filled with petrol, one with castor oil and one with vinegar.

    一个装满了汽油,一个装满了蓖麻油,一个装满了醋。

    be filled with 充满了……,我们也常用fill(in)…with…。例如:

    Please fill in the blanks with right verb forms.

    请用动词的正确形式填空。

    The cup is filled with water.

    这个杯子装满了水。

    另外,be full of 也是“充满”的意思。例如:

    The bag is filled with apples. = The bag is full of apples.

    袋子里装满了苹果。

    5. Every day many tourists gather here early in the morning so that they can watch the raising of the national flag.

    每天早晨大量的游客为了观看升国旗早早地就聚集在这儿了。

    (1) so that“以便于……,为了……”。引导目的状语从句,意为“以便,使能够”,从句中的谓语动词常由can, could, may或might+实意动词构成。例如:

    We will get up early tomorrow so that we can catch the early bus.

    为了赶早班车我们明天将早起。

    We bought another TV set so that each of us could have his own.

    我们又买了一台电视机,这样,每个人就都有自己的电视机了。

    I’ll speak slowly so that you can understand me.

    为了让你们能听懂我的话,我说慢一点。

    注意:so that 和so…that 的区别

    so that作 “以致于” 讲时, 相当于so…that…句型中that的含义。作“为了……”讲就与so…that…不同了。例如:

    I got up very early yesterday so that I could get to school first.

    昨天我起的很早, 为了第一个到校。

    It is raining heavily so that we are late for school. = It is raining so heavily that we are late for school.

    雨下得很大, 以致于我们上学迟到了。

    (2) raise在此处表“升”,除此之外,raise还有好多其它的意思。例如:

    raise v. 提高

    He raised the lid of the box. 他提起了盒子盖。

    raise v. 召集,筹集

    The king raised an army. 国王召集起一支军队。

    raise v. 抚育,饲养

    They raise horses. 他们养马。

    6. It consists mainly of a hill and a man-made lake, with bridges, pagodas and halls all over the area.

    它主要是由一座小山,一个人工湖构成的。到处布满了桥,宝塔和走廊。

    (1) consist of由…组成

    The committee consists of ten members.

    该委员会有十名成员。

    (2) man-made 人造的

    man-made satellite 人造卫星

    (3) all over遍及

    He is going to travel all over the world by plane.

    他打算乘飞机环游世界。

    English is spoken in many countries all over the world.

    世界许多国家都讲英语。

    7. You can experience its beauty and greatness although it is very tiring to climb it step by step.

    尽管一步一步爬上去很累,但你可以体验到它的美丽和伟大。

    experience解释为“经历”,作为不可数名词用时解释为“经验”。

    I had a usual experience yesterday.

    昨天我经历了一次不寻常的事情。

    He has not enough experience for the position.

    对于这种职位,他没有足够的经验。

    A man of your experience ought to do well.

    一个有你这样的阅历的人是应当发迹的。

    另外experience可以用作动词。例如:

    He experienced all sorts of difficulties and hardships.

    他经历过一切艰难困苦。

    He is much experienced in teaching.

    他有丰富的教学经验。

    8. You cannot imagine how amazing they are unless you see them with your own eyes.

    imagine是及物动词,意为“想象”,其用法为:

    imagine + n. / doing

    imagine sb. doing

    imagine + that … 想像(做)……

    You might imagine that LA must be a very beautiful city.

    你可能会想象洛杉矶肯定是一个非常美丽的大城市。

    Can you imagine living on a lonely island by yourself?

    你能想象独自一个人生活在孤岛上吗?

   

  【语法讲解】

    A 用although 引导从句

    Although作从属连词引导让步状语从句。例如:

    Although it was expensive, we decided to buy it.

    它虽然价格很贵,但我们还是决定把它买下来。

    Although I still make lots of mistakes, it doesn’t bother me like it used to.

    尽管我仍然犯很多错误,但这个问题不像过去那样困扰着我了。

    Although we all tried our best, we lost the game.

    虽然我们都已尽了最大的力量,但还是输掉了比赛。

    He went to the party at last, although he didn’t like it.

    他虽然不喜欢,但最后还是去了聚会。

    Although her father is in the company, she got the job on her own.

    尽管她爸爸在公司里,她却靠自己得到那份工作。

    B 用unless 谈论例外情况

    unless意为“除非……,否则……”,引导一个否定意义的条件状语从句,可以替换为if...not。例如:

    My baby sister never cries unless she is hungry. (= My baby sister never cries if she isn’t hungry.)

    我刚出生的妹妹从来不哭,除非她饿了。

    I shall go there tomorrow unless I'm too busy. (= I shall go there tomorrow if I'm not too busy.)

    如果我不太忙的话,明天将到那儿去。

    Unless you go at once, you will be late. (= If you don’t go at once, you will be late.)

    如果你不马上走,就会迟到的。

    C 用so that 谈论做某事的目的

    so that “以便,为了”引导目的状语从句

    He got up early so that he could go to school on time.

    他早早起床以便能准时到学校。(目的是准时到校)

    She takes notes carefully in class so that she may use them when she reviews her lessons after class.

    她在课上认真记笔记,以便能在课下利用它们复习功课。

    Please finish doing your homework quickly so that you can help your mother with housework.

    你快点把作业写完以便帮妈妈做家务。(目的是帮助妈妈干家务)

    Integrated Skills

    1. arrive in Tokyo

    到达东京

    arrive“到达”

    It is said that he will arrive tomorrow.

    据说他明天到。

    He was among the first to arrive.

    他是首批到达的人之一。

    arrive一般和介词in, at搭配。at后一般跟小地点, in后跟大地点。例如:

    I arrived in Beijing at 7:00 on the morning of August 15.

    我于8月15日早上7时刻到达北京。

    When I arrived at the station. I learnt the train had already left.

    我一到车站,就听说火车已经开了。

    2. leave Japan for other Asian countries

    离开日本去其它亚洲国家

    leave…for…离开……去……;leave for 动身去……,

    We are leaving Beijing for Shanghai.

    我们将离开北京去上海。(leave此句中是及物动词)

    When are you leaving for London?

    什么时候你将动身去伦敦?(leave此句中是不及物动词)

    What did you forget to carry before you left for class this morning? 

    你今天早晨离家去上课前忘记了带什么?

    He is leaving for Shanghai tomorrow.

    他明天动身去上海。

    3. But it all depends on the weather.

    但完全视天气情况而定。

    depend on “依靠, 依赖; 取决于”

    He is a man to depend on.

    他是个可以信任的人。

    Children must depend on their parents.

    孩子们必须依赖他们的父母。

    You can depend on his honesty.

    你可以相信他的诚实。

    The decision depends on whether we have enough experience.

    这个决定取决于我们是否有足够的经验。

   

  【重点难点】

    1. You can go there by air and it just takes about two hours.

    你可以坐飞机去那儿,只用两个小时就到了。

    (1) just “只,仅仅”

    Just as you opened your mouth, I thought of the answer to the question.

    我刚想到答案,你就开口说了出来。

    (2) take“花,用”

    It’ll take us about half an hour to go there.

    我们用了大约半个小时的时间到那儿。

    2. It is easy to exchange your money in the banks in Beijing.

    在北京,从银行换钱是很容易的。

    It is easy to do…是以it 做形式主语引导的主语从句。

    主语从句一般都是放在句首。但有时由于主语从句太长,会显得头重脚轻。因此,常用it作形式主语,而把主语从句挪到句子后面去。形式主语是it的句型有:

    It is + adj. / n. + that …

    It is said / reported … + that …

    It is certain that fuels like coal and oil cause a lot of pollution.

    煤和石油这类燃料能造成大量的污染,这是肯定的。

    It seemed strange that he came so late today.

    很奇怪他今天来得这么晚。

    It is not yet decided when and where the talk will be given.

    何时何地开报告会还没定下来。

    It is hoped that you’ll be able to attend the concert.

    希望你能出席音乐会。

    3. Olympic Park is where the 1988 Seoul Olympic games were held.

    where 在此句中引导地点状语从句

    地点状语从句常由where(在……地方),wherever(无论……在哪儿)等连接词引导。例如:

    I’ll go where work conditions are difficult.

    我愿意到工作条件困难的地方去。

    I found the key where I had left it.

    我在掉钥匙的地方找到了钥匙。

    Where there is a will, there is a way.

    有志者,事竟成。

    Wherever you are, you should work for the people heart and soul.

    无论你在哪里工作,你都应该全心全意为人民服务。

    4. There are hundreds of shops in Myeongdong Shopping District.

    hundreds of 表示“数以百计的”。它与thousands of, millions of 等一样,主要用来强调“多”,它们只能表示“大约多至”,“数以……计”,不可表示明确的数目,前面切不可加表示具体概念的数词。但是,这类词组前可以加一些表示不确定数目的修饰语。例如:

    These things were all invented hundreds years ago.

    这些东西都是几百年前发明的。

    Thousands of people went to watch the football match.

    成千上万的人去观看了那场足球赛。

    Many hundreds of buildings are being built.

    好几百幢大楼正在建设中。

    Several millions of trees are planted in our country every year.

    每年我们国家种植几百万棵树。

    注意:hundred, thousand, million 等在表示具体概念的数字时,后面都不可再加“-s”,前面需加表具体数量的词。例如:

    There are more than eight hundred students in our school.

    我们学校有800多名学生。

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, the world’s population was about 1,700 million.

    在二十世纪初,世界人口大约有17亿。

    5. You can also spend a day in Bears Town Ski Resort.

    (1)spend意为花钱,用钱

    spend money on sth.

    She spends too much money on clothes.

    她花在服装上的钱太多。

    (2)spend意为“用尽,耗尽”

    spend sth. on sth. / in doing sth.

    They always spend a lot of time in explaining a plan.

    他们总会花费很多的时间来说明一项计划。

    总结一下关于“花费”的词:

    ①spend 的主语必须是人,宾语可以是钱、精力、时间等,用法如下:

    spend…on (for)+名词

    He spends much money on books.

    他用很多钱在买书上。

    spend …(in) doing sth.

    Every morning he spends half an hour in reading English.

    每天早上,他用半个小时时间读英语。

    ②cost的主语必须是物,意为“某物花费某人多少时间/金钱”。

    The book costs him one dollar.

    这本书用了他一美元。

    Making experiments like this costs much time and labor.

    做这样的实验要花费我很多时间和劳动。

    ③take表示“花费”时,主语一般是一件事,表明“事情完成花费了…”

    常用 “It takes(took) sb. some time to do sth.” 结构。

    It took me ten minutes to go to the post office.

    到邮局用去了我十分钟的时间。

    Painting the picture took me all week.

    画这幅画用了我整整一周的时间。

    ④pay 意思是“支付”,作为及物动词,宾语可以是人、钱。例如:

    He paid the taxi and hurried to the station.

    他付了出租车的钱,急忙向车站赶去。

    They had to pay two hundred francs.

    他得付二百法郎。

    pay for 的宾语为物、事。for 表示支付的原因。

    You’ll have to pay me ten dollars a week for your meals.

    你得每周支付我十美元饭钱。

    Checkout

    1. I wish people could walk or ride bicycles instead of driving cars unless it is really necessary.

    (1) wish意为“想要,需要,渴望,希望,但愿”,后接名词性从句,从句中的动词用虚拟语气形式。

    I wish I could fly like a bird.

    我希望我能像小鸟一样飞翔。

    I really wish I could read some funny stories.

    我真希望能读点有趣的故事。

    I wish to come tomorrow.

    但愿我明天能来。

    做名词时,意为“祝愿”。例如:

    I send you my best wishes.

    我向你们表示最美好的祝愿。

    辨析:hope与wish

    这两个词作动词,都有“希望,期望”之意。

    ①hope与wish后都可接动词不定式,但wish后还可接“sb. + to do sth. ”的结构,而hope则不可以。如果用hope表达主语希望别人做某事时,后面要接宾语从句。例如:

    Jim hopes to get a baby horse for his birthday.

    吉姆希望在生日那天能得到一匹小马。

    I hope to have a look at your new car.

    我想看看你的新车。

    The little girl hopes her mother will come home from work earlier today.

    这个小女孩希望她妈妈能早点下班回家。

    My aunt wishes to find her lost watch somewhere.

    我姑姑希望在什么地方能找到她丢失的手表。

    The little girl wishes her mother to come home from work earlier every day.

    这个小女孩希望妈妈每天早点下班回家。

    ②hope表示“说话者以为想要做的事”,通过努力可以实现;而wish常表示“说话者要想做某事”,但不去想可能实现与否,或认为可能性不太大。另外,hope表示“未来可能的希望”,而wish表示“与事实相反的愿望”。例如:

    We hope to visit this place again.

    我们希望能再度探访此地。

    We hoped to save more money.

    我们希望能存更多的钱。

    I’m hoping that you will accept my offer.

    我希望你能接受我的建议。

    He wishes to go to the moon now.

    他希望现在就能到月球上去。

    I wish I could make no mistakes in the exams without any difficulty.

    但愿我能毫不费力地在考试中不出差错。

    (2) instead of“代替,而不是”

    instead of 是介词短语,其后跟名词、代词、动名词或介词短语作其宾语,例如:

    He went there to gain money instead of to spend money.

    他去那儿是为了赚钱而不是花钱的。

    He likes playing football instead of basketball.

    他喜欢踢足球而不喜欢打篮球。

    My father watched TV last night instead of seeing a movie.

    我爸爸昨晚看电视了,而没有看电影。

    You should join a queue instead of jumping the queue.

    你应该排队而不应该加塞。

    辨析:instead of与instead

    ①instead of后面的事物往往是不做的,没有的。后面接名词,代词或动词-ing形式。

    I stayed at home all day instead of going to work.

    我整天呆在家里而没去上班。

    Let’s play cards instead of watching TV.

    咱们玩纸牌吧,别看电视了。

    ②instead作为副词,意为“代替,替换”。后面的事物是要做的。

    I didn’t go to work. Instead, I stayed at home all day.

    我没去上班,而是整天呆在家里。

    Our car has something wrong. Shall we go there by bus instead?

    我们的汽车出毛病了,咱们坐公共汽车好吗?

    We’ve no coffee. Would you like tea instead?

    我们没有咖啡了。改喝茶好吗?

    2. Unless I learn to cook, I will not be able to enjoy the tasty Chinese food when I go back to the USA.

    be able to “能,可以”

    It is hoped that you’ll be able to attend the concert.

    希望你能出席音乐会。

    辨析:can与be able to

    ①can和be able to都可表示“能,可以”,意思上相同。但can只有现在式和过去式(could)两种形式。如需用其它时态,则用be able to代替,例如:

    He can still be alive.

    他可能还活着。

    He can’t be poor.

    他不可能贫穷。

    He has not been able to finish the work in time.

    他没能及时完成工作。

    I’ll be able to see you tomorrow.

    我明天将会去看你。

    ②如果我们要表示一个动作成功地完成了,那么必须用was able to,而不能用could。例如:

    He was able to leave Europe before the war began.

    他设法在战前离开了欧洲。

    He was able to go to Paris yesterday and enjoyed himself very much.

    他昨天设法去了巴黎,而且他玩得非常高兴。

    ③在否定句中could与be able to两者意思一样。例如:

    I could not / was not able to swim to the other side of the river.

    我没能游到河的对岸去。

    ④can / could不应与be able to同时使用。

 

 


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